Chinese Among Others_ Emigration in Modern Times_Philip A. Kuhn


Although colonial states got involved in the indenture system by issuing regulations for both workers and employers, the survival of the system rested on the fact that certain breaches of contract (by the workers) were punishable by penal sanctions—they were treated as criminal offenses against the state, not civil disputes between contractual parties. Juridically, indenture was linked unmistakably to its close ancestor, slavery.